Have people ever wondered if they can treat wastewater at home? It’s a process that transpires behind the scenes and often goes unnoticed. Before being released into the environment, wastewater leaves the residence and passes through a sewage treatment plant. People living in independent houses can use wastewater treatment and reuse it to meet a large part of their water needs. The report published by Astute Analytica indicates the global wastewater treatment market is forecast to grow at a CAGR of 7.41 during the forecast period from 2022 to 2030. Increasing population, expansion of the manufacturing industry, urbanization, and regulatory conditions are driving the wastewater treatment market.
In this context, wastewater only refers to greywater, i.e., water from bathroom sinks, washing machines, etc. Greywater is far less organic content and pathogenic than blackwater – the water coming from toilets and kitchen, making it easier to treat and reuse than blackwater.
Greywater makes up around 40% of a household’s wastewater, and it contains impurities such as soap, detergent, dead skin, hair, and oil. Each household member creates roughly 90 liters of greywater every day. This water can utilize for gardening and toilet flushing once it gets treated. It can provide up to 40% of a household’s water demands. However, the point to remember is that this water is not pure for drinking. In order to make it drinkable, the water needs to treat using a process like ozonation.
What are the ways to treat wastewater at home?
The wastewater streams via the treatment plant. The treatment process is as follows:
Primary treatment: The waste flows into a primary settlement tank, which is like a septic tank. In the first step, oil and grease rise to the top while sludge sinks to the bottom.
Secondary treatment: Wastewater then goes into an aeration tank. An aeration tank encourages natural biological processes that promote the growth of bacteria, which then help break down the waste.
Final treatment: Final settlement is the last step in the domestic wastewater process. Using settling tanks, domestic water treatment plants can make sure any residual solid waste sinks to the bottom. This helps to increase the water quality.
Methods of Treating Wastewater
Treatment of wastewater at home can be done in a variety of ways. Natural treatment systems often use reed beds, also called planted gravel filters.
A natural treatment system for greywater
Inspection chamber/ Grease trap
Greywater transports to the inspection chamber via pipes that convey it from various sources throughout the house (bath, washing machine, etc.). Large solids separate in this chamber and float on the water surface. A baffle wall keeps the floating solids at bay, allowing just the water to pass through to the next stage, the baffle filter.
Water runs through a baffle filter, which consists of a filter and numerous baffle chambers. Water is treated by anaerobic decomposition as it flows through the baffle chambers, which helps to remove solid particles and scum.
Planted gravel filter/ reed bed
Reed beds are gravel tanks in which wetland plants are rooted. The water here gets purified as:
- Plants receive nutrients from the water, even manmade substances like soap. Wetland plants grow hydroponically, i.e., they only use water and the nutrients in it to flourish.
- Natural die-off, antibiotics generated by plant roots, UV exposition, sedimentation, and clinging to the gravel bed kill pathogens in water.
A reed bed with a bed area of 5-7 sq m and a depth of 1-1.5 m recommends for every 1000 liters of greywater.
The treated wastewater moves into the storage tank or polishing pond. At this point:
- Increases the oxygen dissolved content of water
- Reduce the odor
- Oxidizes any leftover pollutants
- UV exposition removes pathogens
The Need to Install Wastewater Treatment at Home
Affordability: The wastewater plants typically have lower installation and operating costs. They also last for a considerable amount of time. An important factor is not having to replace a sewage system for many years.
Eco-friendly: Wastewater treatments use natural biological methods. It creates drainage cleaner and lowers pollution. As domestic wastewater treatment plants are more typical in rural areas, this is especially important for local plants and wildlife.
Safeness: Sewage can be hazardous and toxic in some cases. The possibility of dangerous microorganisms in the tank reduces by treating the sewage. While this will help the area’s wildlife and vegetation, it will also lower the chance of human harm.
Odor: Even close to a residence, aromas from a water treatment facility are significantly less unpleasant than odors from cesspits or septic tanks. People can ensure that their treatment system fits in with their surroundings by implementing an efficient system.
Efficiency: The aeration and purifying process are effective, and they can help prevent clogs in the tank. Because there are fewer blockages or other difficulties, there is less maintenance required overall.
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